IELTS Data Reading Passage 134 – Parenting and Responsibility

IELTS Data Reading Passage 134 – Parenting and Responsibility

You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1 -14 which are based on IELTS Data Reading Passage 134 – Parenting and Responsibility”.

IELTS Data Reading Passage 134 – Parenting and Responsibility Questions 1-5 Reading Passage, “Parenting and Responsibility”, has six sections.

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Choose the most suitable heading for each section from the list of headings (i-xi) below. Write the appropriate numbers (i-xi) in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.

N.B. There are more headings than sections so you will not use all of them.

LIST OF HEADINGS

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{i} The presumptions of policymakers

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{ii} Need for more equitable parenting policies

{iii} The impact of dual employment

{iv} Comparison of employed and non-employed mothers

{v} The benefits of balanced responsibility

{vi} The unchanged role of the female parent

{vii} The effect of stress on the female parent

{viii} Disadvantages of parental equality

{ix} The experts’ view of the male parent’s role

{x} Commitment of mothers to their paid jobs

{xi} Origins of anxiety in working mothers

Example                               Answer

 Section A                             {ii}

Question 1. Section B

Question 2. Section C

Question 3. Section D

Question 4. Section E

Question 5. Section F

Parenting and Responsibility

Section A

There are still significant gaps between women and men in terms of their involvement in family life, the tasks they perform, and the responsibilities they take. Yet, at least in developed Western countries, both women and men express a desire for greater equality in family life. It is evident that in terms of attitudes and beliefs, the problem cannot simply be thought of in terms of women wanting men to share more equally and men being reluctant to do so. The challenge now is to develop policies and practices based on a presumption of shared responsibility between men and women, and a presumption that there are potential benefits for men and women, as well as for families and the community, there is greater gender equality in the responsibilities and pleasures of family life. These are becoming key concerns of researchers, policymakers, community workers, and more importantly, family members themselves.

Section B

Despite the significant increase in the number of women with dependent children who are in the paid workforce, Australian research studies over the last 15 years are consistent in showing that divisions of labor for family work are very rigid Indeed(Watson 1991). In terms of time, women perform approximately 90 percent of child care tasks and 70 percent of all family work, and only 14 percent of fathers are highly participating in terms of time spent on family work (Russell 1983). Demo and Acock (1993), in a recent US study, also found that women continue to perform a constant and major proportion of household labor (68 percent to 95 percent) across all family types(first marriage, divorced, step-family, or never married), regardless of whether they are employed or non-employed in paid work.

Section C

Divisions of labor for family work are particularly problematic in families in which both parents are employed outside the home (dual-worker families). Employed mothers adjust their jobs and personal lives to accommodate family commitments more than employed fathers do. Mothers are less likely to work overtime and are more likely to take time off work to attend to children’s needs (Vanden Heuvel 1993). Mothers spend less time on personal leisure activities than their partners, a factor that often leads to resentment Demo and Acock 1993).

Section D

The parental role is central to the stress-related anxiety reported by employed mothers, and a major contributor to such stress is there taking a greater role in child care (Vanden Heuvel 1993). Edgar and Glezer (1992) found that close to 90 percent of both husbands and wives agreed that the man should share equally in child care, yet 55 percent of husbands and wives claimed that the men actually did this. These claims are despite the findings mentioned earlier that point to a much lower participation rate by fathers.) A mother’s wanting her partner to do more housework and child care is a better predictor of poor family adjustment than is actual time spent by fathers in these tasks(Demo and Acock 1993). It is this desire, together with its lack of fulfillment in most families, that bring about stress in the female parent.

Section E

Family therapists and social work researchers are increasingly defining family problems in terms of a lack of involvement and support from fathers and are concerned with difficulties involved in having fathers take responsibility for the solution of family and child behavior problems (Edgar and Glezer 1986). Yet, a father accepting responsibility for behavior problems is linked with positive outcomes.

Section F

Research studies and strong support to the argument that there are benefits for families considering a change to a fairer or more equitable division of the pleasures and pains of family life. Greater equality in the performance of family work is associated with lower levels of family stress and higher self-esteem, better health, and higher marital satisfaction for mothers. There is also higher marital satisfaction for fathers, especially when they take more responsibility for the needs of their children-fathers are happier when they are more involved (Russell 1984)

IELTS Data Reading Passage 134 – Parenting and Responsibility Questions 18-26

Below is a list of research findings mentioned in Reading Passage Indicate which researcher(s) are responsible for each research finding:

DA                  Demo and Acock

EG                   Edgar and Glezer

R                     Russell

VH                  Vanden Heuvel

W                    Watson

Write the appropriate letters( DA, EG, R, VH, or W) in boxes 18-26 on your answer sheet

Research findings

Example Fathers spend more time than mothers on personal leisure activities

Answer DA

Question 6. The number of hours a father spends doing child care is not the best indicator of how well the family is adjusted

Question 7. The vast majority of fathers do not take part to any great extent in family work 20. Women do the majority of housework whether they are married or not.

Question 8. With regard to the issue of equal responsibility for child care, there is a discrepancy between the wishes and the claims of parent couples

Question 9. Both mothers and fathers are happier where the father assumes some responsibility for issues relating to the behavior of the children.

Question 10. Researchers now link family problems to fathers’ lack of involvement in rearing children.

Question 11. In terms of dealing with family issues, employed fathers make fewer sacrifices in their jobs than do working women.

Question 12. Anxiety results from the mother being the primary caregiver.

Question 13. There has been little recent change in the housework and child care roles of mothers and fathers

IELTS Data Reading Passage 134 – Parenting and Responsibility Question 14

Write the appropriate letters (A, B, C, or D) in box 14 on your answer sheet 14. In ‘Parenting and Responsibility, the writer’s main aim is to…

[A] argue that a division of labor in parenting is equitable.

[B] argue for increased participation in parenting by working men and women

[C] discuss the differences in the contributions of men and women to the job of parenting

[D] describe the composition of modern families

IELTS Data Reading Passage 134 – Parenting and Responsibility Answers

(1) VI

(2) III

(3) XI

(4) IX

(5) V

(6) DA

(7) R

(8) DA

(9) EG

(10) R

(11) EG

(12) VH

(13) VH

(14) C

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